Town community

Turisk was founded by Jews in 1094, on the shores of the river Turia. The Jewish residents dealt with rooting out the forests, and wood industry. The community grew. A jewish cemetery of the 12th century was discovered near Turisk. The Shtetl was occupied six times by neighbour countries. Parts of it was destroyed, the Jews always recovered and started new. In the 16th century the community flourished. They build a very big synagogue. Then new oppressions were imposed. The Jewish population was forbidden to live or act in the cities of the country. The oppressions caused an economical crisis to to region. Turisk suffered, and was fighting to survive. The suffering caused dreams and expectations the Messeyash to arrive… In the beginning of the 18th century, the Hassidic movement flourished. The rebe Avraham Tversky, the son of the Maggyd from Chernobyl decided to settle in Turisk. He started the the Trisker Hassidic dynsty. A very big court was build, and it brought a dramatic change to the economic situation. Hassidim from all over Poland, Ukraina visited the Maggyd, to get His blessings. Rebe Avremele Maggyd was a very well known commentator of the Torah, in the 80tees He published His study "Magen Avraham", which is a study book in the yeshivot until today.// In the beginning of the 19th century the spirits of the Haskala penetrated into the circles of the yeshiva students, when Coming home they erected Zionist groups, and modernization of the Cheiders. A library was foundet, they collected books from the members homes, most of them in Yiddish.
A Jewish school was foundet wih Hebrew and yiddish as teaching languages. It aroused a very strong reaction of the Orthodox Hassidim,but the progress continued.
In the first world war the German army occupaied Turisk. The Shtetl was closed and isolated, the economy collapced, starvation and hunger. The Rebe with all the court left for Russia. When the war was over a group of Zionist school teachers decided to join the "Tarbut" school net,and stopped to teach Yiddish. As a result a group of Yiddish teachers lead by the writer Leib Olizky foundet a school with Yiddish as the teaching language. It devided the Shtetl into two camps of Zionits and Bundists. The first "Hashomer" was foundet and the first group of youngsters immigrated to Palestine. When they left the "Ahaluz—Pioneer" organization arouse and young Zionists man and women went to "Hachshara" places to prepare for Palestine. That was "KLOSOVA" a stone quarry, hard and dangerous work. An Hachshara place started in a sawmill not far from Turisk. Tens of yong Hallouzim from other Shtetlach were preparing for Palestine. It influenced the youth. In 1927 the Hashomer Hazair youth movement erected a "NEST" jn Turisk . The founders were students of the "Tarbut" high school in Kovel, and included the pupils of the Tarbut school. The grown up members left for the Hachshara center, Bialystock, and then started to leave for Palestine. The slogan of the movement was self fulfillment, to be a peasent in Palestine. One of the founders was Yeshaayahu (shayke) Wainer, he went for Hachshara then was enlisted to be one of the leaders of the unlegal immigration to Palestine. He became one of the leading groupe of Hashomer Hazahir in Poland. In 1939 was elected to be the delegate of the movement to the Zionist Congress in Basel. The Yiddish school was the first of its kind in all the region of 44 towns and Shtetlach. It became famous because of the level of its education.
In time many of their graduates became writers and poets in Yiddish literature. The competition betweenthe parties was a trigger to culturally enrich the Shtetl.
Turisk became famous because of several important personalities and events:
  • In the beginning of the 18th century Dr. Moshe Marcoosi came voluntarily to practisize in Turisk over 30 years, helping the poor people, and was researching the illnesses and plagues spread among them.In 1770 he published a medicine book in Yiddish ! As a hand book for the masses. It is the only medicine published in Yiddish until today.
  • In the beginning of the 18th century Rebe Avremely Tversky erected the Hassidic court and Dynasty, was famous all over Ukraina and Poland, and many countries abroad. He wrote and published a commentary study book to the Torah, which is an important study book in the Yeshivot until todaym.
  • The cultural soil of Turisk was the growing area of ten very important writers and poets, Researchers and publicists.
  • Two of the sons of Turisk became leading persons in their movements in Poland:
    • Yeshayahu (Shayke) Wainer, he was among the leading persons of the unlegal immigration to Palestine before the war.He was elected as delegate of his movement to the Zionist congress in Basel in 1939. During the S.W.W. he was in charge of the ties with the Hashomer refugies in Russia, before the war finished went to Poland to meet and help them to move on to Palestine. After the war he served as head of the Hashomer Hazair movement for three years. He was appointed to lead the struggle to free the Russian Jewry in south Amerika and U.S.A.
    • Liber Brener, a teacher and leader of the Socialist Bund party in the region. Was forced to leave Turisk by the Polish authorieties. He settled in the town Chenstochova. There he Was active in the Bund. During the war was among the leaders of thr ghetto resistance. He Survived and published a study of the resistance and mytiny of the Ghetto.
The S.W.W. started when Germany attacked and occupaied Poland. Then divided it with Russia. Turisk fall into Russian rule. All the activities of the Zionists was forbidden. The Hebrew school and library closed. The movement members were ordered to stop activities.
Some of them had to join the Russian army. But the "quiet life" did not last long…
In june 1941 the Nazis invaded Russia. They occupied Turisk on the second day. In the same day the Germans with the active support of the Ukrainians opened the horrible oppressions against the Jews. They were forced to concentrate into half of the houses of Turisk, in terrible sanitary conditions. Many were taken to hard works out of the Shtetl, not all of them came back. In the Ghetto starvation and deads were every day, those who tried to escape were shot down… All the winter clothes were confiscated, all gold and silver robbed, all cows ,goats taken away… Then the terrible Saturday came, all the population was ordered to concentrate in and around the big synagogue, than surrounded by the Ukrainian militia were forced with bayonets to move on the main street towards Kovel. When coming to the pits of the brick factory they were forced to undress and line after line were shot and fell into the pit. The slaughter went on until evening and all were dead!
In the evening Ukrainian hordes break into the Ghetto houses to sqander… sudden gun Fire was opened from houses, many fall dead much more were wounded, they run away in panick… when the militia started to attack the houses a fire caught the wooden Ghetto houses ,in a few minutes all the Ghetto was aflame. Some young Jews who tried to escape were shot and thrown into the flames. In the morning only a few wooden beams still were smoky. This was the end of the 850 years old Jewish Turisk.